9 major areas where media and government interests conflict
"New Media Monopoly" Chapter 12 and Afterward
A summary of important points in the last required parts of Bagdikian's
A posting of some main assertions by Noam Chomsky in the
video, "Manufacturing Consent"
on Advertising, PR, Necessary Illusions and activism
An interview with Noam Chomsky -- a podcast in November 2012 by
smellslikehumanspirit (Guy Evans)
A spoof by The Onion -- for a bit of relief (not on quiz)
Lappe on democracy
An excerpt from "The Broken Promise of Democracy" in The Sun
"Political Economy of
Media," Intro, Ch. 1 & Ch. 5
Robert McChesney's assertions -- the early chapters
"Political Economy of
Media," Ch. 10
McChesney's take on Meiklejohn -- the middle chapters
"Political Economy of
Media," Ch. 15
McChesney's hope -- the end
No summary of "Manufacturing Consent" will be posted. Students should rely
on material in the link above (Pilgrim will limit what is needed for
the exam) and use the video as a way to supplement
the material in the link.
No summary of "War Made Easy" will be posted. This video is shown over two days and may be
worth double attendance points. Note when war becomes perpetual. Note the assertions about
"war propaganda" and the
propaganda techniques to overcome resistance in the U.S. and disapproval abroad. Note the
role official sourcing ("officials say") plays in war propaganda. Note the different
elements of the war propaganda cycle. Note what the bias of war propaganda is
regarding killing people from planes and note which people, during war, the media focus
on and are bias toward. Also, be
able to identify why the United States may be approaching "spiritual death" (in
the words of Dr. Martin Luther King at the end of the video).
Elements of war propaganda cycle: using lies or leaving out material to sell war; use
stories that tug at heartstrings; use rhetoric of democracy; bias toward morality of killing
for peace; stress military mindset; rely on official & military sources; emphasize need for patriotism
(support the troops); during war, have a bias toward it being moral to kill people from a
distance & from planes (90% of deaths in the Iraq war have been civilians); support the war effort;
be slow to end war -- stress patriotism and not being cowardly; focus on Americans, not
civilians of the country the war is in; marginalize critics of the war
No Web summary of "Beyond Good and Evil: Children, Media & Violent Times"
will be posted. Take notes about media and misinformation. Note the assertion
by Dr. Levine about what media teach children about Americans and enemies in
war -- and about media framing how children think about others and war. Note the
children/soldier death statistic. Note the Christian and Islamic definitions of "evil."
Be ready to close your eyes at some of the graphic images.
Some U.S war & military spending information:
The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan may cost as much as $6 trillion if medical
care and disability benefits coming for decades are included, according
to a March 31, 2013, Seatttle Times article by Alan Zarembo of the Los
Angeles Times("Wars in Iraq, Afghanistan could
cost up to $6 trillion," p. A10).
Over the last 10 years, U.S.
war efforts in Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan have already cost about $4
trillion, the Seattle Times reported July 1, 2011 (in a Washington
Post article citing the nonpartisan Eisenhower Research Project).
Eisenhower Project puts the total number of people killed in those
conflicts at 225,000 -- including at least 137,000 civilians -- and the
wars have created an estimated 7.8 million refugees in the three
countries, according to Dr. Jassim Taqui, July 1,
2011, in the Pakistan Observer.
The total U.S. cost (including
reconstruction) for Iraq
and Afghanistan through the end of the 2011 fiscal year was $1.26 trillion
($797.3 billion for Iraq and $459.8 billion for Afghanistan), the Seattle
Times reported June 2, 2011, citing research by the Congressional
Research Service (and Polifact and National Priorities Project).
For fiscal 2011, 58% of U.S. discretionary spending goes
to the military -- and increased by 71% between 2001 and 2010 (it
increased three times the rate of domestic discretionary spending -- 24%),
according to the bipartisan Congressional Budget Office.
"Estimated ratio this year of the U.S. defense budget to that of the
rest of the world combined: 1:1"
-- Harper's Index, April 2006
U.S. military spending in 2010 was $698 billion, the
highest on earth -- and outdistancing many times over any potential enemy
(China was second with an estimated $119 billion; the United Kingdom,
third with $59.6 billion; France, fourth, $59.3 billion; Russia, 5th,
estimated $54.5 billion; Japan, sixth, $54.5 billion; Saudia Arabia,
seventh, $45.2 billion; Germany, eighth, estimated $45.2 billion;
India, ninth $41.3 billion; Intaly 10th, estimated $37 billion) --
find this and other data at
International Peace Research Institute -- military expenditure data
story (citing Stockholm International Peace Research Institute) in
Seattle Times, April 11, 2011
Since 2000, U.S. defense spending has gone up 81% -- not counting
the Iraq and Afghanistan wars -- and in spite of billions being cut from
the U.S. budget in 2011, the military budget was set for a 5% increase.
-- Bill Maher on "Real Time with Bill Maher" April 2011
From 2001-09, $904 billion has been provided to cover the cost of U.S.
military operations. The amount from 2009 to 2018 is projected to be
as much as another $817 billion -- find this and other data at
-- Center for
Strategic and Bugetary Analysis data
The linked page below shows two charts detailing military spending:
One contains the actual and projected spending 2001-2018 -- as much as
$1,721 billion dollars, $1,509 billion for military operations (wars).
The other is the total defense-related funding requested for Fiscal Year
2011 only -- $860.5 billion.
U.S. cost of war
A related infographic:
Explore the interactive version at:
"Returning Fire: Interventions in Video Game Culture" -- a recent video with
assertions about the impact of real-world killing (from a distance,
usually in war -- when it becomes a form of consumer play) -- is available
in Wilson Library. Pilgrim recommends it as a supplemental video.